EINSTEIN’S FALSE PREMISES REGARDING THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT

Einstein based his Lorentz-like
Special Theory on the following __false premises__: 1) that the __propagation__ velocities of
light (c – v and c + v) __relative to linearly moving bodies__ are the same
phenomena as Maxwell’s constant __transmission__ velocity of light at c __relative
to the medium of empty space__, and 2)
that a light ray must always propagate
relative to a stationary body and relative to a linearly moving body at the
same __absolute__ velocity of c (300,000 km/s). But it turns out that a light ray, which
transmits at the constant velocity of c relative to its medium of empty space
also has a myriad of very natural __relative velocities__ and relative
distance/time intervals of propagation vis-ŕ-vis an infinite number of linearly
moving bodies in the Cosmos. Thus the
paradox of Einstein’s ‘difficulties’ concerning the velocity of light is easily
explained, and there never were any real ‘difficulties’ that needed Einstein’s
absolute mathematical fix contained in his Special Theory.

Let us now further scrutinize the mathematical ‘difficulties’ that appeared to Einstein when he misapplied the mechanics principle of Galileo’s Relativity, and its related Galilean transformation equations, to a ray of light propagating relative to a stationary embankment and a linearly moving carriage. (see Chapter 19) With sufficient consideration and proper analysis of the phenomena and the theoretical ‘difficulties,’ Einstein’s explainable paradox should completely disappear by the end of the next Chapter 22.

In the process, we shall discover that there never were any real
‘difficulties;’ that there never was a different transmission velocity for a
ray of light *en vacuo*; that there never was a contradiction of Maxwell’s
equations; and that there never was a need for a mathematical ‘modification’ of
Galileo’s Relativity nor for the Galilean transformation equations with respect
to light. All of these paradoxical
‘difficulties’ were merely false assumptions and/or faulty analyses that
existed in Einstein’s mind, and in the collective mind of the scientific
community.

A. Some definitions of concepts and terms with
respect to light.

Neither
Maxwell, nor Einstein, nor apparently anyone else has adequately defined the
meaning of certain critical concepts and terms that are necessary for a clear
understanding of the phenomena of light, its instantaneous emission velocity,
its constant transmission velocity and its __relative__ velocities of
propagation. Therefore, we must complete
this definitional task before we proceed.

The
following terms have the following meanings as defined by the following
dictionaries.

a. The word ‘__emit__’ means to send out, to
give forth, to eject, to give off or to transmit something, like a signal or
radiation. (Webster’s Dictionary, p.
444)

b. The word ‘__transmit__’ with respect to
light means “to cause…light…to pass through air or some other medium.” (*Id*., p. 1421)

c. The word ‘__medium__’ means “something
intermediate” or “an intervening thing through which…an effect is
produced.” (*Id*., p. 843) In accordance with this definition, a vacuum
or empty space can be a medium for light propagation.

d. The word ‘__propagate__’ with respect to
light means to spread out or transmit through a medium in all possible directions. This definition implies that such propagation
will be over distance/time intervals.
(see *Id*.

e. The word ‘__speed__’ means the rate of
motion or propagation: “The ratio of the
distance covered…to the time taken.”
(Oxford Dictionary of Physics, p. 464)

f. The word ‘__velocity__’ means “the
speed…in a specified direction.” (*Id*.,
p. 523) This definition implies that the
velocity will be over a distance and during a time interval.

g. The word ‘__relative__’ means “related
each to the other.” (Webster’s
Dictionary, p. 1132)

h. It follows that the term ‘__relative
velocity__’ means the velocity of one thing related to the velocity of
another thing.

i. The word ‘__linear__’ means in the form or
direction of a straight line. (*Id*.,
p. 786)

Based primarily upon such definitions, we are now able to
define three of the most important concepts of light, as follows:

1. We define the ‘__emission__’
of a light ray (EM radiation) to mean the instant that such light ray comes
into existence and is sent out from a material light source at its point of
emission in space by means of a physical process (i.e. a chemical process).

2. We define the ‘__transmission__’
of a light ray to mean its abstract constant velocity, or its constant velocity
__relative__ to the __medium__ (i.e. empty space) through which it
propagates. (see Figure 6.8)

3. We define the ‘__propagation
velocity__’ of a light ray to mean its passage over changing intervals of
time (duration) and over changing intervals of space (distance) __relative__
to material bodies that are moving __linearly__ relative to such light ray.[1]

B. Einstein was
completely confused concerning Maxwell’s constant velocity of light at *c*.

Maxwell’s theory for the velocity of light described a ray of light which
__constantly transmits__ from its material source body through the __medium
of a vacuum__ at the velocity of *c*
(about 300,000 km/s). (see Maxwell,
1865, *A Dynamical Theory of the
Electromagnetic Field* [The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell (1890),
Vol. 1, pp. 579 – 580, Dover Publications, *c* is an __invariant
property__ of a light ray transmitting through the medium of a vacuum. Maxwell’s law for the __transmission
velocity__ of light at *c* could also
be characterized as an __abstract__ or absolute velocity, because, unlike
the velocity of a material object, it is not measured or described relative to
something material. It is only
theoretically measured or described relative to its __medium of a vacuum__…which
is nothing.[2] (see our Chapter 6A)

For several reasons, Einstein did
not understand Maxwell’s theory for constant transmission velocity of light at *c* through the medium of a vacuum. Instead he assumed that the velocity of a __propagating
light ray__ was measured and described by an observer __relative to a
material ‘body of reference__,’ which might be moving linearly toward or away
from the light ray.’[3] The primary reason that Einstein did not
understand Maxwell’s theory for the velocity of light in a vacuum was mostly
likely because he never read Maxwell’s above 1865 treatise.[4]

In early 1917, Einstein wrote a very
revealing little-known paper, entitled *The
Principle Ideas of the Theory of Relativity*, which specifically describes
his misunderstanding and confusion concerning Maxwell’s velocity of light in a
vacuum. (Einstein, early 1917, *The Principle Ideas of the Theory of
Relativity* [Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vol. 7, pp. 3 – 6,
Princeton University Press, New Jersey])
In such paper, Einstein described the following thought experiment.

“Based upon
many experiments, physicists became convinced that light propagates through
empty space at a speed of *c* = 300,000
kilometers per second, entirely independent of the velocity of the body that
emits this light. Imagine a ray of light
sent by the sun in a distinct direction.
According to the law just stated, this ray travels a distance of *c* per second.[5] Now imagine the sun later hurls a body into
space such that it flies with a velocity of 1,000 kilometers per second in the
same direction as the ray of light. This
is easy to imagine. We now can similarly
imagine this projected body as an alternative __body of reference__ and ask
ourselves what is the __propagation velocity__ of light in the judgment of
an observer who does not sit on the sun but rather on the projected body?[6] The answer seems simple. When the hurled body runs after the light at
1,000 kilometers per second, the ray of light advances against it by only
299,000 kilometers per second.”[7] (*Id*.,
pp. 3 – 4)

See Figure 21.0 at the end of this Chapter 21 in order to better visualize Einstein’s above thought experiment.

Strangely enough, this above velocity (299,000 km/s) was a correct __relative
velocity between__ the light ray transmitting at 300,000 km/s and the body
moving linearly in the same direction at 1,000 km/s. However, Einstein __mistakenly__ believed
that such computation must be wrong.
Why? Because unless it was wrong,
Maxwell’s velocity of light in a vacuum could not be a __constant__ *c* (300,000 km/s) relative to the
reference body. This was __Einstein’s
major false premise__ for his Special Theory that we also discussed in detail
in Section B of the Preamble, entitled “The Three Velocities of Light in a Vacuum.”

As will be made patently clear in the following paragraphs, Einstein
mistakenly believed that Maxwell’s law for the velocity of light at *c* in a vacuum was measured by an
observer relative to a linearly moving body of reference…not relative to the medium
of a vacuum. Because of such confusion,
Einstein attempted in his Special Theory to defend and save Maxwell’s law for
the velocity of light at *c*. But Maxwell’s law for the velocity of light
at *c*, __relative to its medium of a
vacuum__, was correct and did not need Einstein’s mistaken and artificial
attempt to defend and save it.

The simple answer to Einstein’s above described false premise is: Maxwell’s law for the velocity of light in a
vacuum was never *c* (300,000 km/s) __relative
to a material body of reference__.[8] Maxwell’s law for the velocity of light in a
vacuum was __always__ *c* (300,000
km/s) __relative to its medium of a vacuum__. These two concepts are very different. Very importantly, the reader must fully
understand the difference between these two concepts before proceeding. It is the key to realizing why Special
Relativity and all of its mathematical consequences are empirically false.

Einstein then asked the following questions in his 1917 paper:

“Should light
when judged from the projected body really propagate differently than when
judged from the sun? Should the laws of
the propagation of light depend upon the state of motion of the body of
reference?”[9] (*Id*.,
p. 4)

Einstein attempted to answer his
above irrelevant questions with the following contrived, *ad hoc* and impossible conjectures:

“The law of
light propagation is the same, whether the sun or the projected body is chosen
as the body of reference. __The same
ray of light travels at 300,000 kilometers per second relative to the sun and
also relative to the body projected at 1,000 kilometers per second__. If this appears __impossible__, the reason
is that the hypothesis of __the absolute character of time is false__. One second of time as judged from the sun is
not equal to one second of time as seen from the projected body. (*Id*.,
pp. 4 – 5) …It turns out that __one can
define time relative to this body of reference such that the law of the
propagation of light is obeyed relative to it__.” (*Id*.,
p. 5)

“Given the
correct definition of time—the theorem of the constancy of the speed of light
in empty space holds true. More
generally, one can express as a theorem of manifold experience: the laws of nature are the same in all __inertial__
systems. This theorem is called
‘principle of special relativity.’” (*Id*.

On the contrary, the __correct__
answers to Einstein’s above thought experiment, and to his impossible
conjectures with respect thereto, are as follows. 1) There is __no law__ for the constant __propagation__
of light at *c* __relative to a linearly
moving body of reference__. Maxwell’s
law for the __transmission__ velocity of light is only a constant velocity
of *c* with respect to the __medium of
a vacuum__. Any moving body of
reference, and the __changing distance/time intervals__ for a ray of light
propagating relative to such moving body, are __irrelevant__ to Maxwell’s
law. 2) Einstein’s *ad hoc* concepts concerning the absolutely constant velocity of a
light ray at *c* relative to everything
in the Cosmos at the same instant, and the __variable duration__ of a
distance/time interval…are __impossible__ concepts.[10] 3) We shall demonstrate in our Chapters 23
and 24 that __inertial__ motion (and any state of motion of a material body)
is completely __irrelevant__ to Maxwell’s law for the constant velocity of
light at *c* in the medium of a vacuum. 4) It turns out that there never was a real
problem with respect to Maxwell’s law for the constant transmission velocity of
light at *c* in a vacuum. Einstein only imagined such paradoxical
problems and arbitrarily tried to fix them with mathematics.

It is obvious from the above discussion that Einstein confused: 1) the __changing__ distance/time
intervals of a light ray propagating with respect to a linearly moving body of
reference, with 2) Maxwell’s __constant__
transmission velocity of a light ray at *c*
through the medium of a vacuum. The
major paradox that Einstein caused for himself and which he was grappling with
in his Special Theory, was: How could
the distance/time interval of a propagating light ray __change__ relative to
a linearly moving body of reference, and still maintain a __constant__
velocity of *c* relative to such body?[11] The above __discussion__ and __correct__
answers easily explain Einstein’s paradox.

Specifically, the answer to
Einstein’s above paradox is as follows:
a ray of light transmits at the constant velocity of *c* relative to the vacuum through which
it propagates, but with respect to any material body moving linearly at v
through such vacuum the ray of light propagates over changing distance/time
intervals relative to such moving body at the __relative velocity__ of *c* ± v, depending upon the direction of
motion of such body. It is just that
simple.

Einstein went on to state that Dutch physicist H. A. Lorentz had “calculated the general rules that allow one to transform location and time from one inertial system to another.” Einstein then concluded:

“Obviously, in
this manner one can not only transform individual events but also
mathematically formulated laws of nature.
The principle of special relativity demands of these laws [i.e. the
velocity of light at *c*] that they do
not change under such [Lorentz] __transformation__. If they do not have this property, then they
have to be rejected by the principle of special relativity. The laws of nature must be __adapted__ to
the principle of special relativity.’” (*Id*.

On the
contrary, throughout *The* *Relativity of Light* we will demonstrate
that __any transformation equations__ are completely __irrelevant__ to
Maxwell’s law for the constant transmission velocity of light at *c* in the medium of a vacuum.

Based upon his total confusion of Maxwell’s theory of light, and based
upon his above described monumental false assumptions, Einstein contrived his
entire *ad hoc* and artificial Special
Theory in order to defend Maxwell’s law, and to attempt to justify and confirm
his false assumptions, his false answers and his impossible concepts.[12] In the process Einstein applied his Lorentz
transformations to many other physical phenomena (including __not__ be arbitrarily __adapted__ to Einstein’s *ad hoc* principle of Special Relativity,
but Einstein’s Special Relativity must be abandoned before it can further
distort the laws of physics.

Before Einstein published his Special Theory, he was obviously very
confused by Maxwell’s equations and Maxwell’s theories concerning the constant
velocity of light, to the extent that he was aware of them. For another example, Einstein wrote in
1920: “The difficulty to be overcome was
in the __constant nature of the velocity of light in a vacuum__, which
initially I thought I would have to discard.”[13] (see Folsing, p. 172) Folsing concludes that before June 1905,
Einstein “intended to do without the universally constant velocity of light,
inherent in [Maxwell’s] theory” (*Id*.

“The velocity
of light was to be constant only for an observer stationed next to the light
source, whereas all observers moving relative to that source would measure a
different value, depending on their own __relative velocity__ with regard to
the source.”[14] (*Id*.

The above statements demonstrate
that Einstein was only considering the __relative velocity__ of a light ray
as it __propagated relative to its material source body__, and relative to other
moving bodies and observers.[15] Whereas, Maxwell’s theories and equations
concerning light only referred to light’s constant velocity of *c* __in
the abstract__ or __relative to its medium__ of ether (actually empty
space).[16] In fact, Maxwell never created or discussed a
theory of light relative to ponderable[17]
stationary bodies, and Einstein never referred to Maxwell’s real law for the
constant __transmission velocity__ of a light ray relative to the medium
through which it propagates. (see
Chapters 6A & 6B, and Figure
6.8)

Einstein’s above described ‘constant emission velocity theory’ can also
be characterized as a ‘ballistic’ theory, because it assumed that the velocity
of light was __dependent__ upon the velocity of the light’s material source
body.[18] (*Id*.*c* in a vacuum, as Maxwell’s equations
and empirical experiments demand?[19]

Einstein’s attempted solution for this paradoxical ‘difficulty’ was to
postulate that: “light is always __propagated__
in empty space with a definite __velocity c__ which is

During the mid 19^{th} century, Maxwell had assumed in his theory
of light and in his equations that the phenomenon of light was an
electromagnetic disturbance of the material ether, which material disturbance __transmitted
as electromagnetic waves at the constant velocity of c relative to its
medium__ of stationary ether in empty space.
(see Chapter 6A and Figure
6.3) Maxwell never theorized about
the

Since Einstein was attempting to defend the validity of Maxwell’s
equations, he should have postulated the following: “light is always __transmitted__ at the
constant velocity of *c* __relative to the medium of empty space__
through which it propagates.” If he had,
there probably never would have been any mathematical ‘difficulties’ concerning
the Galilean transformation equations that needed explaining or a mathematical
fix. Everyone would have realized that a
light ray transmitting at the constant velocity of *c* relative to its
medium would very naturally also produce __relative velocities__ of *c*
+ v or *c* – v when it propagated over a changing distance/time interval
relative to a ponderable inertial body moving linearly at v either toward or
away from such light ray. In this event,
there never would have been a Special Theory of Relativity, because it would
have been completely __unnecessary__.

One thing is certain. Einstein
never realized the critical distinction between the constant transmission velocity
of light relative to its medium, and the varying velocities of a propagating
light ray relative to linearly moving bodies.
We know this, *inter alia*, because throughout his Special Theory
and his book *Relativity* he repeatedly interchanged the terms ‘transmission’
and ‘propagation’ as if they were the same concept, because he never defined
what he meant by the terms ‘propagation’ and ‘transmission,’[21]
and because his examples and his theories clearly demonstrate his confusion.[22]

C.
What exactly is the difference between the constant transmission
velocity of a light ray at *c*,
and the changing velocities of a light ray propagating relative to various
linearly moving bodies?

It is an experimental fact that the __instant__
a light ray comes into existence, it __transmits__ relative to the
transparent medium through which it passes at a certain __constant__ rate of
velocity. The constant transmission
velocity of a light ray relative to the medium of a diamond is about 38% of *c*
(124,000 km/s); relative to the medium of glass it is about 60% of *c*
(197,000 km/s); relative to the medium of water it is about 68% of *c*
(226,000 km/s). Finally, the constant
transmission velocity of a light ray relative to the medium of empty space (or
a perfect vacuum) is 100% of *c* (about 300,000 km/s). (see Halliday, p. 893) Thus, a light ray always retains the same
constant rate or velocity of transmission relative to the particular
transparent medium through which it propagates.
(see Figure 6.8) This constant transmission velocity is
separate, distinct and independent of any changing distance/time interval over
which such light ray may propagate with respect to a ponderable material object
moving linearly relative to the light ray.

Let us now assume that this same
constantly transmitting light ray __propagates__ through each such medium,
over a distance and during an interval of time __relative to a material object__. If the distance through the particular medium
relative to such object does not change during such interval of time (i.e. the
material object (Moon) and the material light source (Earth) are relatively
stationary), then the velocity of such light ray’s propagation relative to such
object (its velocity times the time interval of its propagation) will remain
constant…the same as its transmission velocity.
(see Figure 21.1D) If, however, such distance of propagation
constantly changes, i.e. because the light ray (transmitting relative to the
medium of empty space at *c*) is approaching a rocket that is moving away
from the light ray at velocity v, then the velocity of the propagating light
ray __relative to the moving rocket__ will be *c* – v, or a relative
velocity of less than 300,000 km/s. (see
Figures 21.1B and B_{1}) Conversely, if the light ray transmitting at *c*
relative to such medium is approaching a rocket that is moving __toward__
the light ray at velocity v, then the velocity of the propagating light ray __relative
to the rocket__ will be *c* + v, or a relative velocity of more than
300,000 km/s. (see Figures 21.1A and A_{1}) In this regard, Sobel gives the following
example:

“Light emitted
by a source, say a star…travels toward us with the speed 300,000
kilometers/second. But if the earth is
moving toward the star, then *relative to earth*, where the light is
detected, the speed of light must be greater.
Similarly, if the earth moves away from the star, the speed of light
reaching us must be smaller.” (Sobel, p.
200)

Therefore, the velocity of a light ray depends upon what it is
transmitting or propagating __relative to__.
Again, if we consider a light ray as transmitting relative to its
theoretically stationary medium (say empty space), then its velocity __relative
to such medium__ will remain a constant (i.e. *c*). But if we consider such transmitting light
ray as propagating __relative to a material body__ which is moving linearly
at v __away from__ such light ray, then the velocity of such propagating
light ray __relative to__ such moving body will be *c* – v, and the
velocity of such material body relative to the light ray will be v – *c*. Similarly, if we consider such transmitting
light ray as propagating __relative to__ a material body which is moving
linearly at v __toward__ such light ray, then the velocity of such
propagating light ray __relative to such moving body__ will be *c* + v,
and the velocity of such material body relative to such propagating light ray
will be v + *c*. These simple
concepts do not involve anything like rocket science. The only concept that we are dealing with
here is the simple concept of relative motions (velocities).

**D. A
light ray, which always transmits at the constant abstract velocity of c
relative to its medium of empty space, also has relative velocities of c
± v and relative distance/time intervals of ct ± vt when it
propagates toward or away from material bodies that are moving linearly at v
with respect to such light ray.**

Einstein’s most important false premise in his examples of the
‘difficulties,’ was his __misanalysis__ that the constant propagation
velocity of light at *c* relative to the stationary rails, when compared
and applied to the velocity v of a linearly moving object (a carriage),
constituted a different __transmission velocity__ of light and a different
law for the propagation of light.
(Chapter 19) Einstein stated that
when a light ray is sent along a railway embankment, “the tip of the ray will
be __transmitted__ with the velocity *c* relative to the
embankment…[but] with respect to the carriage” moving at ‘v’ in the same
direction the velocity of the light ray is *c* – v. (Einstein, *Relativity*, p. 22; see Figure 19.1B) Einstein then concluded:

“The __velocity
of propagation__ of a ray of light relative to the carriage thus comes out __smaller
than c__…But…like every other general law of nature, the law of the

“If every ray
of light is __propagated__ relative to the embankment with the velocity *c*,
then for this reason it would appear that another __law of propagation__ of
light must necessarily hold with respect to the carriage—a result contradictory
to the __principle of relativity__.”
(Einstein, *Relativity*, pp. 22 – 23)

Here Einstein was interchanging and confusing Maxwell’s concept of ‘the
constant transmission velocity of light at *c* relative to its medium of
ether (empty space)’ and the concept of ‘varied velocities of a light ray
relative to material bodies moving linearly at velocity v relative to the light
ray’…as though they were the same concept.
However, they are obviously two completely different concepts, as we
explained in the last Section C. The
‘principle of relativity’ that Einstein was referring to was not Galileo’s
empirical concept of relativity, but rather Einstein’s own *ad hoc*,
expanded and invalid mathematical concept of relativity and algebraic
co-variance. (see Chapter 20E) A correct statement by Einstein would have
been: “Maxwell’s natural law of the
constant transmission velocity of light at *c* relative to the medium of
empty space must be the same with respect to every linearly moving material
body (and observer).

Einstein obviously __misinterpreted__ the varying velocities of a
light ray __propagating__ relative to the stationary embankment and
propagating over changing distances and time intervals __relative__ to
linearly moving bodies with different speeds of v, to be different __transmission__
velocities for the same light ray.
Whereas, in actuality, such varying velocities (of *c* + v and *c* – v) are only the
very natural different __relative velocities__ of a light ray (transmitting
at *c* and) propagating over changing distance intervals during changing
time intervals…toward or away from material bodies moving linearly at different
speeds and in different directions relative to the light ray. (see Figure 21.1) Such relative velocities were also the
natural result of applying the Galilean transformation equations to a light ray
propagating between two different reference frames (the stationary embankment
and the carriage moving away from it at v).
Such relative velocities do not (and cannot) change Maxwell’s natural
law for constant transmission velocity of such light ray at *c* relative
to its medium of empty space, or relative to any other transparent medium
(including air) at a lesser constant velocity.[23]

In effect, Einstein confused Maxwell’s natural law for the constant __transmission__
velocity of a light ray at *c* relative to its medium of empty space with
the light ray’s varying velocities of __propagation__ over changing
distance/time intervals relative to material bodies moving linearly relative to
the light ray.[24] Very importantly, there is no Maxwellian law
for the constant __propagation__ of a light ray at velocity *c*
relative to linearly moving material objects over changing distance/time
intervals.[25]
Nor is there a __specific__ Maxwellian law for the __relative velocity__
of a light ray with respect to linearly moving bodies.[26]
Einstein’s confusion and his failure to comprehend the above facts are what
caused his imaginary ‘difficulties.’

What Einstein and all of the other
mystified scientists of a century ago failed to realize, was that they were
actually dealing with __two__ very different types of velocity for the same
ray of light. These two different types
of velocity are: 1) the constant,
abstract and invariant __velocity of transmission__ for a ray of light at *c*
relative to its medium of empty space (this velocity is an inherent __property__
of any light ray); and 2) the very
natural __relative velocities__ of a light ray propagating at *c* ± v
over changing distance intervals and changing time intervals (of *c*t ±
vt) relative to various material bodies, each moving in a particular linear
direction with a different velocity of its own relative to the light ray. (see Figure 21.3 and Chart 21.4) We shall call this principle of different and
varying relative velocities for a light ray, the ‘Relativity of Light.’

Einstein and the scientific
community apparently failed to realize that when the tip of such light ray
(transmitting at *c *relative to its medium) is __propagating__ among
various linearly moving material objects, that each moving object has a
different velocity and a particular direction of motion, and thus experiences a
different distance/time interval of approach or separation __relative__ to the
tip of such light ray; and vice-versa (or reciprocally) for the light ray.[27] In other words, these different velocities
and different directions of motion of material bodies each create a different __relative
velocity__ between the tip of such light ray and each linearly moving
material object or other ray of light. (Figure 21.3 and Chart 21.4) Each of these relative velocities could be
described as *c* – v* *or *c* + v depending upon each object’s
velocity and relative direction of motion.
But none of these __relative__ velocities have any effect upon the
constant, abstract and invariant __transmission__ velocity of the light ray
at *c* relative to its transparent medium.
Light always propagates relative to its medium of empty space at the
transmission velocity of *c*, regardless of the relative motions of
material objects around it.

Figure 21.3 and Chart 21.4 demonstrate
some of the various relative velocities that exist for the propagation of light
rays with regard to differently moving material objects, and relative to other
rays of light. As the reader can readily
see on Figure 21.3,
the tip of Einstein’s light ray (L_{1}) is propagating relative to the
linearly moving railway carriage A at 300,000,000 meters/s minus v = 30
meters/s.[28]
But this comparative or relative velocity (*c* – v) does not in any way
affect or change the transmission velocity of the light ray (L_{1}) at *c
*= 300,000,000 meters/s relative to the medium of space through which it
passes. All four light rays shown on Figure 21.3 maintain
their constant __transmission__ velocity of *c* through the medium of
empty space, and yet their __relative velocities__ (of propagation)
vis-ŕ-vis different linearly moving material objects and other rays of light
also vary widely. (Chart 21.4)

Very importantly, the same type of relative velocities holds true with
respect to all __material__ objects and observers moving linearly relative
to each other. (see Figures 7.1, 21.5 and 21.6) As Neffe concludes with respect to the
above: “Light acts like any traveler who
moves at a constant rate of speed.”
(Neffe, p. 128)

Now if these different relative velocities of __propagation__ (*c*
– v or *c* + v) are __misinterpreted__ to be different velocities of __transmission__
for the same ray of light, then a ‘difficulty’ or paradox is created. Again, this is what Einstein concluded in his
example of the ‘difficulties.’ Einstein
misinterpreted the __propagation__ velocity of the tip of a light ray, __relative__
to the linearly moving carriage at v, to be a __different transmission
velocity__ (*c* – v) for the
light ray. But, in fact, he was only
measuring and referring to the very natural __relative velocities__ between
the tip of the light ray and other linearly moving things in its neighborhood.[29]

When Einstein asked for the velocity
of the ray of light (w) relative to the linearly moving carriage (Einstein, *Relativity*,
p. 22), he was not even dealing with an __addition__ of velocities. (Figure 19.1B) Rather, he was only dealing with a very
natural comparative or __relative velocity__, vis. the transmission velocity
of the light ray at *c* compared to the linear velocity of the carriage at
v in the same direction. So, Einstein
got exactly what he was asking for: a relative velocity (*c* – v). But he obviously did not realize nor
understand the concept of the Relativity of Light.[30]

Thus, the paradox of Einstein’s ‘difficulties’ is easily explained. There never were any real ‘difficulties’
between Galileo’s Relativity or the Galilean transformation equations and
Maxwell’s constant transmission velocity of light at *c* (mathematical or
otherwise) that needed fixing, which needed mathematical reconciliation, or
which needed Einstein’s contrived Special Theory. The principle of Galileo’s Relativity and
its related Galilean transformation equations may be valid and meaningful for
mechanics, but they are both __irrelevant__ with respect to the laws of
electromagnetic waves of radiation (light).
(see Chapters 23 and 24)
Maxwell’s law for the transmission velocity for a light ray at *c*
is both a __constant__ (invariant) property of the light ray with respect to
its medium, __and results__ in different relative velocities when such light
ray propagates with respect to material bodies that move linearly through space
with changing distance/time intervals relative to such light ray. This situation is identical with respect to
material objects moving linearly with respect to each other, such as
automobiles traveling down a motorway at different constant speeds, and in
different directions. [31] (Figure 21.6)

**E. Einstein’s impossible absolutely constant
velocity of a light ray at c relative to everything.**

Einstein’s failure to understand
the difference between the constant abstract transmission velocity of a light
ray at *c* relative to its medium of empty space, and the varying relative
velocities of a light ray propagating with respect to linearly moving material
bodies (the ‘Relativity of Light’), led to his __next major false premise__: that a light ray *en vacuo* always
propagates at the absolutely constant velocity of *c* relative to
everything.[32] More specifically, the first part of Einstein’s
second postulate (that “light is always propagated in empty space with a
definite velocity *c*”) means that a ray of light __propagates__ over
changing distance/time intervals relative to different inertial bodies
(coordinate systems or frames of reference) at the same absolutely constant
coordinate velocity of *c* and at the same instant of time, regardless of
the different linear velocities of such inertial bodies relative to such light
ray. This type of absolute velocity is,
of course, an impossible concept.

As we have already pointed out in Chapter 20F, many scientists have
similarly interpreted the first part of Einstein’s second fundamental
postulate. Typically, Bohm interpreted
it to mean that: “all uniformly
moving…observers obtain the same measured velocity of light, independently of
their own speeds.” (Bohm, pp. 54,
60) Resnick interpreted it to mean: “the speed of light in free space has the
same [measured] value *c* in all inertial reference frames.”[33] (Resnick, 1992, p. 469) Dingle interpreted it to mean: “velocity with respect to anything at all.”[34] (Dingle, 1961, p. 20)

Einstein’s concept of the constant __propagation__ of light at *c*
relative to every stationary body and every linearly moving body brought with
it the “implication of __absolute motion__” of light. (Bird, 1921, p. 70) For how else could “the velocity of
light…[appear] the same to all observers regardless of the __relative motion__
of the source of light __and the observer__.” (*Id*.

“We are at once
on the horns of a dilemma. Either we
must give up relativity…or we must overturn the __foundations of common sense__
by admitting…that when we go to meet an advancing light-impulse, or when we
retreat from it, it still reaches us with the same velocity [*c*] as
though we stood still waiting for it.”[35] (*Id*.

These impossible results only become completely evident when one reads
Einstein’s book, *Relativity*, and especially Chapters 7 and 11
thereof. For example, in Chapter 7
Einstein stated that when a light ray is sent along a railway embankment, “the
tip of the ray will be __transmitted__ with the velocity *c* relative
to the embankment…[but] with respect to the carriage” moving at ‘v’ in the same
direction the velocity of the light ray is *c* – v. (Einstein, *Relativity*, p. 22; see Figure 19.1B) Einstein then concluded:

“The __velocity
of propagation__ of a ray of light relative to the carriage thus comes out __smaller
than c__…But…like every other general law of nature, the law of the

Einstein then
referred to this paradox that he had created as a ‘dilemma.’ (*Id*., p. 23)

In Chapter 11 of *Relativity*,
Einstein blamed the so-called transmission velocity of ‘*c* – v’ for light
(in his example of the ‘difficulties’) upon the Galilean transformation
equations. (Einstein, *Relativity*,
p. 34) He then asked the question:

“How have we to
__modify__ [the Galilean transformation equations so] that…__every ray of
light possesses the velocity of transmission c relative to the
embankment and relative to the train__?”[38] (

“Can we
conceive of a __relation__ between place and time of the individual events
relative to both reference-bodies, such that __every ray of light possesses
the velocity of transmission c relative to the embankment and relative
to the train__?” (

Both of such questions by Einstein vividly illustrate the impossible absolute
velocity of *c *that he was trying to mathematically create with the first
part of his second postulate. However,
it is physically and empirically impossible for anything…the Earth, a railway
carriage, an automobile, a rocket, or a ray of light…to travel or propagate at
a __constant speed__ over __different__ distances during the __same__
interval of time. (see Figure 21.7) Nevertheless, this is what Einstein was
asserting. If Einstein had realized that
every ray of light was already constantly transmitting at velocity *c*
relative to its medium of empty space, then he also would have realized that
that such light ray would be transmitting at velocity *c* when it was at
the position of the embankment or the train.
Therefore, his proposed __modification__ of the Galilean
transformations and his proposed __relation__ between place and time (which
relation turned out to be the Lorentz transformations) would have been
completely unnecessary in order to resolve the paradoxes (difficulties) which
Einstein created and perceived.

It is obvious from the above that Einstein was attempting to
mathematically negate or eliminate the __relative velocity__ of light ‘*c*
± v’ with regard to the moving train, to mathematically eliminate the relative
distance/time intervals of light ct ± vt with regard to the moving train, and
was attempting to mathematically replace them with a concept that would provide
an __absolute__ velocity for light, which *a priori* did not depend
upon the linear motion of the train.[40] For how other than __absolutely__ or __instantaneously__
can anything, even a ray of light, move at an absolutely constant velocity
relative to a stationary object and relative to an object that is approaching
or moving away…all at the same rate of speed and at the same instant of time?[41] (see Figure 21.7)

By applying the Lorentz transformations to the relative velocity of a
light ray propagating over changing distance/time intervals with respect to the
stationary coordinate system of the embankment (frame of reference) and with
respect to the linearly moving coordinate system of the carriage (frame of
reference), Einstein mathematically did away with the troublesome relative
coordinate velocities of *c* – v and *c* + v so that such light ray
could algebraically propagate relative to both coordinate systems (frames of
reference) at the same absolutely constant coordinate velocity of *c* at
the same instant of time, regardless of the different linear velocities (v + *c*
or v – *c*) of such frames of reference (coordinate systems) relative to
such light ray abstractly transmitting at velocity *c*. (see Einstein, *Relativity*, pp. 47 –
48)

One can only speculate as to why Einstein invented a new, *ad hoc*,
totally incorrect and unnecessary postulate for the velocity of light *en
vacuo*. Perhaps Einstein only knew
about or only studied Maxwell’s equations as modified by Hertz when he read
Föppl’s book in 1902, but failed to read Maxwell’s original theories concerning
light, which described light as a __disturbance of the ether transmitting at
velocity c relative to its medium__ of stationary ether in empty
space. (see Chapter 6A) If Einstein had not studied Maxwell’s
original theories concerning light, he would have been completely confused by
Maxwell’s equations, which only refer to velocity

Perhaps the light experiments of Bradley, Arago and Fizeau confused Einstein. They, in effect, concluded that the velocity of light has the same value for every inertially moving body (frame of reference) regardless of its own different velocity in opposite directions.[42] (Chapters 7 and 19) Perhaps it was the M & M experiment with all of its paradoxical conclusions that confused Einstein. (Chapters 9 – 12)

Perhaps Einstein was misled by all of the false ether theories, such as
those of Lorentz and Poincaré, and the other absurd theories of the late 19^{th}
century. Perhaps when the material ether
was exposed to be a fiction by Michelson in 1881, Einstein could think of no
other material medium with respect to which light could transmit, so he decided
that it must transmit and propagate at *c* relative to ponderable material
bodies. Perhaps the concept of light
transmitting relative to its medium of empty space (in the absence of ether)
was too abstract a concept for his mathematical sensibilities to digest.[43] We will probably never know for sure the real
reason for Einstein’s confusions.

There were only two theoretical ways that Einstein’s __absolute__
concept for the __propagation__ of light at *c* could physically be
accomplished:

1) If the transmission velocity of
light was an absolute motion, in other words, if it propagated at an __infinite__
or __instantaneous__ speed toward all material objects in the Cosmos; or

2) If the distance and time
intervals which the light had to propagate relative to moving objects could
somehow respectively be __contracted__ and dilated (or eliminated) in
proportion to the relative linear velocity v of the moving object. (Figure 21.8)

The first absolute method was untenable for Einstein as a __direct__
solution, because numerous experiments had already empirically demonstrated
that the velocity of light was finite and approximately 300,000 km/s, which was
in accord with Maxwell’s equations. So
Einstein was forced to choose the second method as an __indirect__ absolute
solution.

In order to mathematically change the relative propagation velocities of
light (*c* – v or *c* +
v) into *c* for all inertial observers with different relative linear
velocities, Einstein arbitrarily modified the Galilean transformation equation
for distance in order to create a __mathematical__ contraction of the
distance interval for all physical objects to linearly move relative to a light
ray (or for a light ray to propagate relative to a moving object), which
mathematical contraction was in proportion to the relative linear velocity v of
such objects in any direction.[44] The mathematical means by which Einstein
chose to achieve this result was the so-called ‘Lorentz transformation,’ which
Lorentz had used in 1904 to attempt to explain the Michelson & Morley null
result with a similar theoretical ‘contraction’ (and ‘dilation’) in his attempt
to rescue the concept of ether. (see
Chapters 15 and 16) The Lorentz
transformation would mathematically negate or eliminate the troublesome
changing distance/time intervals that a propagating light ray would have to
physically travel relative to such objects.
This was an algebraic result which Einstein would later call
‘co-variance.’ (see Einstein, *Relativity*, pp. 47 – 48) The resulting mathematical velocity for such
propagation would always be *c*. As
Bertrand Russell concluded:

“the Lorentz transformation has the advantage that it makes the velocity of light the same with respect to any two bodies which are moving uniformly relatively to each other, and, more generally, that it makes the laws of electromagnetic phenomena (Maxwell’s equations) the same with respect to any two such bodies. It was for the sake of this advantage that it was originally introduced.” (Russell, 1927, p. 49)

D’Abro also described the *ad hoc* and arbitrary process that was
required in order to attempt to justify Einstein’s impossible second postulate
concerning the absolute velocity of light at *c*:

“Now
it is obvious at first sight that if our space and time measurements were such
as classical science believed them to be, it would be impossible for a ray of
light to __pass us__ with the same speed regardless of whether we were
rushing towards it or fleeing away from it.
A simple mathematical calculation shows us, however, that we can make
our __results of measurement__ compatible with [Einstein’s] postulate of
invariance provided we recognize that our __space and time measurements__
are slightly different from what classical science had assumed…It leads us, of
course, to the Lorentz-Einstein transformations, and from these transformations
it is easy to see that rods in relative motion must be shortened, durations of
phenomena extended, and the simultaneity of spatially separated events
disrupted.” (D’Abro, 1950, p. 162)

These
artificial and meaningless concepts of space and time measurement described by
D’Abro are what Einstein __mathematically__ accomplished in the first and
second parts of his Special Theory, initially by contrived and illogical
persuasion and then by the Lorentz transformations, all in a futile effort to
justify his impossible absolute velocity of light at *c*. (see Chapters 20G and 25 through 29)

For this indirect method of contrived and distorted measurements,
Einstein needed the mathematical version of Galileo’s Relativity, with Lange’s
inertial reference frames, with its coordinates, with its relative velocities,
and with its Galilean transformation equations, so that he could theoretically
and mathematically modify such distance/time intervals. Thus, it was critical for Einstein’s Special
Theory that the Galilean transformation equations for distance and time be
theoretically applied to* c*, regardless of any incompatibility,
irrelevance, and irreconcilability between Galileo’s Relativity and the velocity
of light. (see Chapters 19, 23 and
24) This is the reason why Einstein
would insist on inserting a square peg (the velocity of light) into a round
hole (Galileo’s Relativity).

Once in possession of the Lorentz transformations, Einstein modified the
equations for distance in the Galilean transformation equations, as follows
(Einstein, *Relativity*, p. 37):[45]

from x' = x – vt x = x' + vt

to x' = x – vt x = x' + vt

√1 – v^{2}/*c*^{2 } √1 – v^{2}/*c*^{2}

^{ }

When these
Lorentz transformations were applied to a light ray propagating relative to a
carriage inertially moving at the relative velocity of v away from the light
ray, the distance of such light propagation mathematically __contracted__ in
proportion to such relative velocity.[46] Einstein then announced that:

“the law of the
__transmission__ of light *in vacuo* is satisfied for both the
reference body K [the stationary embankment] and for the reference body K' [the
moving railway carriage]. A light signal
is sent along the positive x-axis, and this light-stimulus __advances…with the
velocity c__.” [47]
(

But there is a problem even with
this mathematical concept. The Lorentz
transformation for distance __on its face__ was designed to make the
numerator (i.e. the space or distance, x ± vt, between two inertial frames)
mathematically expand. (see Chapters 16
and 28) Even if somehow the distance
between two things in space is then __interpreted__ to contract, this means
that at high relative velocities, empty space itself must contract. (see Figures 21.8 and 21.9) Since empty space is nothing, how can nothing
contract…to less nothing? Does any part
of Einstein’s Special Theory make any empirical or logical sense? The answer is No.

Little did Einstein realize that he
had just invented an *ad hoc*, contrived, complicated, absolute and
impossible mathematical solution for an imaginary problem that physically,
empirically, logically, and theoretically does not exist. (Chapters 21C and 21D) In the process, he created an __impossible
absolute__ velocity for the propagation of light, which also cannot and does
not exist. (Chapter 21E)

We have now discussed the ‘difficulties’ that Einstein perceived, including the

M & M
paradox, and the fact that such ‘difficulties’ did not even exist. We have discussed why Einstein needed to
construct his Special Theory around the framework of Lange’s mathematical model
of Galileo’s Relativity. We have
discussed in general terms Einstein’s false analogies, his false premises and
his proposed absolute solution for the ‘difficulties’ that he perceived. We have also demonstrated that the first part
of Einstein’s second fundamental postulate with respect to the absolutely
constant velocity of light at *c* is invalid and meaningless. In light of the above, how can Special
Relativity have any meaning or any validity for anything?

In Chapter 22 we will discuss how and why light really transmits and
propagates. In Chapter 23 we will
further discuss how and why the concepts of matter and any form of relativity
are irrelevant to, and irreconcilable with, the velocity of light. Then in Chapter 24 we will demonstrate why
Einstein’s radical Principle of Relativity was invalid with respect to light,
and irrelevant to the transmission velocity of light at *c* and to the
propagation velocity of light relative to linearly moving objects. Thereafter, in Chapters 25 through 29, we
will analyze and discuss the specific means by which Einstein attempted to
mathematically achieve his *ad hoc* and absolute solutions.

[1] We will further define these concepts, and also define other concepts related to light, in the next chapter.

[2] Maxwell
never described the __relative velocity__ of a ray of light propagating with
respect to a linearly moving body

[3] There is
a vast difference between the __transmission__ velocity of a light ray and
any __propagation__ velocity of such light ray. Maxwell’s __transmission velocity__ of a
light ray is its specific __constant__ velocity through a particular
transparent medium, such as through glass, water or a vacuum. For example, the specific constant velocity
of a light ray through stationary water is about two-thirds of velocity *c*.
(see Chapter 6) Whereas any __propagation
velocity__ of a light ray is its __variable relative velocity__ of *c* ± v over changing distance/time
intervals, as measured or described by an observer __relative to a body of
reference__ moving linearly at velocity v with respect to the light ray.

[4] Einstein’s school (ETH) did not teach Maxwell’s theory of light. Einstein learned just enough Maxwellian electromagnetism from reading Föppl’s 1894 textbook and other secondary sources in order to pass the Swiss Patent Office exam in 1902. (see Miller, pp. 142 and 165, F.N. 8)

[5] This is
a correct concept, because ‘a distance *c*
per second’ is an __abstract__ velocity.

[6] Here Einstein is falsely assuming that the Sun and the observer on the Sun are absolutely stationary in space, relative to the propagating light ray.

[7] Here
Einstein was describing the ray of light __transmitting__ at *c* through its medium of the vacuum of
empty space, as it (at the same time) propagates over changing distance/time
intervals relative to a body of reference moving linearly at v = 1,000 km/s
with respect to the light ray.
Einstein’s __propagation velocity__ of the light ray at 299,000 km/s
relative to the linearly moving body was correct and it can mathematically be
described as *c* ± v, depending upon
relative directions of motion. However,
such propagation velocity is __not a law__ of nature. It is only a __variable__ relative
velocity between the light ray and the linearly moving body, __not__ a __constant__
abstract velocity through any vacuum.

[8] Relative
to a body moving linearly at v, the relative velocity of the ray of light
(transmitting at *c*) was __always__
*c* ± v. Again, this is why our treatise is
called: *The Relativity of Light*.

[9] Strangely enough, the answer to both of these questions is ‘yes.’ This Chapter will tell you why.

[10] In his Special Theory, Einstein called his artificial definition of variable time interval durations the Relativity of Simultaneity and Time Dilation. (see our Chapters 26 and 28)

[11]
Einstein’s artificial solution for such paradox was, in effect, to mathematically
__eliminate__ the changing distance/time intervals of the propagating light
ray and with them any relative velocity between two inertial reference frames
or bodies, by applying the Lorentz transformations to the situation. Smolin called this “the trick that made
relativity special.” (Smolin, pp. 228 –
229)

[12] If Einstein had read Maxwell’s 1865 theory of light, he would not have been confused and most likely he never would have written his Special Theory in 1905.

[13] This quote is contained in a footnote from a draft of Einstein’s 1920 article for Nature Magazine. (see Folsing, pp. 172 and 762, F.N. 68)

[14] This
concept of moving observers measuring the relative velocity of a light ray
“depending upon their own relative velocity with regard __to the [material light]
source__” makes absolutely no sense, as we shall explain in detail in Chapter
22. The correct theoretical concept is
measurement of the relative velocity of the tip of the light ray with respect
to the linear velocity of the observer (measurer). For the moment, let us assure the reader that
the velocity of a light ray propagating relative to any moving body depends
upon only three things: 1) the
transmission velocity of the light ray relative to the medium through which it
propagates; 2) the linear velocity of
the material body relative to the tip of the light ray; and 3) the relative direction of such material
body’s velocity and such light ray’s velocity of propagation.

[15] This __relative
velocity__ will normally be *c* – v or *c* + v, as we shall later
explain.

[16] The only so-called ‘stationary material body’ that light (a ‘disturbance of the ether’ as Maxwell characterized it) propagated relative to in Maxwell’s theory, was the hypothetical stationary material medium of ether itself. (see Chapter 6A)

[17] The word ‘ponderable’ means ‘material bodies that are capable of being observed.’

[18] In other words, in Einstein’s early theory light was like a bullet fired from a moving train. The velocity of the bullet [light] is added to or subtracted from the velocity of the train, depending upon the train’s direction of motion. (see Figure 7.1) In 1909, Walther Ritz created a similar emission theory of light. (see Miller, p. 264)

[19] *A
priori*, it could not. In such
hypothetical case, the transmission velocity of light at *c* relative to
its medium of empty space would always be measured to be some value of *c*
– v or *c* + v, not a constant *c*.
On the other hand, the Michelson & Morley experiment demonstrated
that the emission velocity or the transmission velocity of a light ray is
always a constant *c* in any direction, regardless of the velocity of its
source body (i.e. the Earth at 30 km/s).

[20] But
this postulate failed to go far enough.
The transmission velocity of light at *c* is also independent of
the velocity v of its receiving body, as we shall discuss in Chapter 22E.

[21]
Throughout his Special Theory, Einstein never defined what he meant by the
terms ‘transmission,’ and ‘propagation.’
He repeatedly and randomly interchanged such terms whenever he referred
to the ‘velocity *c*.’ (see
Einstein, *Relativity*, pp. 21, 22, 23, 35, 39, 47; Einstein, 1905d
[Dover, 1952, pp. 38, 45, 46])
Therefore, it must be assumed that Einstein believed that such terms to
have exactly the same meaning, which they do not.

[22] For
another obvious illustration of Einstein’s confusion, see Einstein, *Relativity*,
pp. 22 – 23 and Chapter 21D, infra.

[23] There
is no conceivable way that a relative velocity between two reference frames, or
their relative distance apart (vt), or a time interval between them (*c*t),
could change the transmission velocity of a light ray propagating from one
reference frame to the other. Yet this
is what Einstein was asserting.

[24] The issue that confronted Einstein was not simply the computation (adding or subtracting) of the assumed relative velocities of the embankment, the carriage, and the light ray. (Figure 19.1B) Rather, it was really a question of the relative distance interval traveled by the embankment and carriage and propagated by the light ray during the appropriate time interval and at what velocity.

[25] Such
changing intervals of time (and distance) for light to propagate would more
accurately be described as *c*t + vt or *c*t – vt. (see Figure 21.2)

[26] We can only determine such specific relative velocity of a light ray on a case-by-case basis.

[27] Thus,
the velocity of approach of the light ray at the transmission velocity of light
at *c* relative to such moving objects is not an __absolute__ velocity
equal to *c*. Rather, it is a __relative
velocity__ equal to *c* + v or *c* – v.

[28] Even Feynman acknowledged this simple fact with the
following example: “Suppose we are
riding in a car that is going at a speed *u*, and light from the rear is
going past the car with speed *c*…According to the Galilean transformation
the apparent speed of the passing light, as we measure it in the car, should
not be *c* but should be *c – u*.
For instance, if the car is going 100,000 mi/sec, and the light is going
186,000 mi/sec, then apparently the light going past the car should go 86,000
mi/sec.” (Feynman, 1963, p. 15-2)

[29]
Einstein never seemed to realize the very natural difference between the
constant __transmission__ velocity of light at *c* relative to its
medium of empty space, and the relative __propagation__ velocities at *c*
+ v or *c* – v over increasing or decreasing distance intervals and time
intervals.

[30] Also, Einstein never determined the position and the instant in time of the tip of the light ray relative to the walking man or the front of the carriage in his examples, nor the relative directions of such velocities, nor what type of velocity he was dealing with. If he had, he might have realized that the ‘difficulties’ that he imagined did not exist.

[31] The author apologizes to the reader for the numerous repetitions contained in this explanation, but he has found it difficult to explain the principle of the ‘Relativity of Light’ to many people (even PhD’s), so that they really understand the concepts involved.

[32] If one
accepts this concept, then one must also assume that light propagating at 68%
of *c* in water must also propagate at 68% of *c* relative to
everything else. This would be the
logical extension of Einstein’s above concept.
But empirically we know that this result is not true.

[33] This statement begs the question: what value would light have in reference frames that were not inertial? If the value would be different in accelerated or arbitrarily moving frames, what would such value be and what would be the physical process or justification for such difference?

[34] Dingle
also interpreted Einstein’s second postulate to be “equivalent to the ether
theory” (Dingle, 1961, pp. 19 – 20), because how else could Einstein determine
that the velocity of light in empty space is absolutely *c* “with respect
to anything at all.” (*Id*., p. 20)

[35] The
answer to this paradox is twofold.
First, Einstein’s absolute concept refers to the velocity of a __propagating__
light ray, rather than the correct concept:
the abstract constant velocity of a light ray transmitting relative to
its transparent medium. The second
answer is described and explained in Chapter 22E.

[36] This
statement and reference to Einstein’s radical and *ad hoc* ‘principle of
relativity’ describes Einstein’s relativistic concept of ‘co-variance,’ where
the velocity of light must algebraically remain *c* in all inertial frames
of reference when it is transformed by the Lorentz transformations from one
frame to another. (see Chapter 20E) Little did Einstein realize that the
transmission velocity of light at *c* relative to its medium of empty
space was already the same magnitude (*c*) for __any__ body of
reference.

[37] This
statement asserts that the very natural velocity of a light ray __relative to__
a linearly moving observer at *c* – v or *c* + v violates Einstein’s
mathematical concept of ‘co-variance.’
(see Chapter 20E and Figure 20.3) It also ignores the fact that there is __no
specific law for the propagation of light relative to linearly moving bodies__. There is only Maxwell’s law for the constant
transmission velocity of light __relative to its medium__. (Chapter 6A and Figure 6.8) Also notice that Einstein interchanges the
concepts of ‘light __transmission__’ and ‘light __propagation__ relative
to a material body’ as if they were the same concept, which they are not.

[38] This
velocity of __transmission__ at *c* was, of course, already occurring
relative to the light ray’s medium of empty space, but Einstein apparently
failed to realize this.

[39] See D’Abro, 1950, p. 162 to understand how Einstein achieved his artificial and absolute velocity of light.

[40] Stated
another way, Einstein mathematically negated the relative velocity of linearly
moving bodies, so that the transmission velocity of light at *c* relative
to them would be as if they were all __absolutely at rest__ in the Cosmos.

[41]
Einstein also declared his concept of the velocity of light to be “the measure
of all things since it represents a kind of __absolute__, constant
velocity.” (Neffe, p. 129)

[42] See Chapter 22E for the explanation of this paradox.

[43] Neffe
asserts that it may have originated from a dubious thought experiment that
Einstein had in 1895 when he was 16 years old.
(see Neffe, pp. 129 – 130; Einstein, 1946, *Autobiographical Notes*
[Schlipp, 1949, p. 53]) There is yet
another possible reason for Einstein’s confusion that deals with ‘reference
frames,’ which we shall discuss in Chapter 24.

[44] Such description also applies to the theoretical reciprocal mathematical dilation of the relevant time interval that Einstein needed to create.

[45] He also
reciprocally modified the Galilean transformation equations for time. (see Einstein, *Relativity*, p. 37)

[46] “[T]he
motion of the body [the carriage] relative to the ether produces a contraction
of the body in the direction of motion, the amount of contraction being just
sufficient to compensate for the difference in time…” (see Einstein, *Relativity*, p. 59) Einstein gave no explanation for how the
fanciful process of contraction occurs, which is empirically troubling since
there is no ether that could produce it.
Similar comments apply to Einstein’s reciprocal ‘dilation of time.’

[47] On the
contrary, empirically and logically the light ray advances with the abstract
transmission velocity of *c* relative to its point of emission in space
and relative to its medium of empty space.
Also, with respect to linearly moving objects, the light ray advances
(propagates) with the relative velocity *c* – v or *c* + v, depending
upon the direction of velocity v of the object.