Chapter 37

**THE
FAILED CONFIRMATIONS OF TIME DILATION **

**AND
THE RELATIVISTIC DOPPLER EFFECT**

** A. Origin of the
concept of Time Dilation**

In 1900, Larmor introduced the unobserved aether concept of time dilation in his treatise “Aether and Matter.” (Zhang, p. 175)

“According to Larmor, a clock moving with a velocity v through __ether__
will go slower than a stationary clock by a factor of √1 – v^{2}/*c*^{2}.”
[1]
(*Id*.

In 1905,
Einstein attempted to convert this absolute concept into a relative one by
substituting a __relative velocity__ v between two inertially moving bodies
in place of the absolute velocity v relative to the non-existent aether.

In section 4 of his 1905 Special
Theory, Einstein referred to the “Physical Meaning” of the Lorentz
transformation equations “in respect to …moving clocks.” (Einstein, 1905d [Dover, 1952, p. 48]) Einstein’s definitions of a ‘clock’ and of
‘time dilation’ were very broad. For
Einstein, a clock was any __periodic process__, such as the oscillations of
an atom. ‘Time dilation’ meant the
increase in time interval between two periodic events, such as two ticks of a
clock or two waves of a light ray, because of a relative velocity. In other words, any relative velocity
mathematically resulted in the decrease in __frequency__ of such periodic
events.[2] (see Gill, p. viii; Einstein, *Relativity*, pp. 41 – 42)

Why did Einstein adopt Larmor’s and Lorentz’s artificial aether concept of time dilation for his 1905 Special Theory? Because he needed it in order to make his mechanics Special Theory for the absolute velocity of light appear to work mathematically.

** B.
**
**Einstein’s Relativistic Doppler Effect**

After Einstein adopted the aether concept of Time Dilation for his Special Theory, he had to attempt to find some empirical confirmation that this concept actually exists. In 1905, the most obvious example of a change in the frequency of a periodic process caused by relative velocity was the classical Doppler effect of light. (see Chapter 7) However, Einstein’s analysis of the Doppler effect of light was quite different than the classical explanation. In section 7 of his 1905 Special Theory Einstein described his relativistic Doppler principle of light. (Einstein, 1905d [Dover, pp. 55 – 56])

Einstein imagined a distant source of light waves in space with an
emitted wave frequency f, which light waves are ultimately received by an
observer. Because of an assumed relative
velocity between the distant source and the observer, he applied the Lorentz
transformation equations for distance and time to such light waves, and
determined an equation for the description of such received light waves by an
observer who was relatively at rest.
Einstein then imagined that the observer moves at velocity v relative to
the light source. [3] Einstein then determined another equation
which *a priori* described the frequency of the light waves when they were
perceived by the observer. Einstein
concluded that “this is Doppler’s principle for any velocities
whatsoever.” (*Id*.

According to Einstein, before the observer can know the constitution of the waves which he is observing at relative rest, he must first apply the Lorentz transformation to the wavefronts emitted by the source, but before he can do that, he must know their frequency when emitted by the source. However, before the observer can determine the wavefront frequency which he is going to perceive as a result of relative motion, he must first know his velocity v relative to the distant source. All of these unknowns can only be inferred from observing a classical Doppler shift. Therefore, Einstein’s relativistic Doppler theory is both circular and impossible to compute unless and until an empirical Doppler shift is first observed and analyzed by classical methods.[4] For these reasons, Einstein’s relativistic Doppler equations are meaningless in any practical sense.

What was Einstein really asserting? He was mathematically asserting that the relative velocity of the source and the observer (at a distance) caused the distance interval and the time interval between the wavefronts emitted by the light source to physically expand.[5] This in turn caused such wavefronts to be received by an observer less frequently than was assumed by the classical theory. Theoretically, there should be a lesser blue shift and a greater red shift than was being interpreted by the classical method.[6] Mathematically, the magnitude of this relativistic effect increased with an increase in relative velocity.

But how can the distance between radiation wavefronts physically expand during their propagation through empty space? Einstein did not enlighten us as to how this physical process (this action at a distance) occurs. Radiation wavefronts are not matter like the longitudinal arm of Michelson’s apparatus, and they have nothing to do with the kinematic motions of matter. So how can the Lorentz transformations for moving matter have anything to do with them?

In the classical theory, when two luminous objects are approaching each other, the distance between their wavefronts decreases relative to the observer and thus they are received more frequently than when at rest. How can the distance between such wavefronts decrease with such relative motion and expand because of such relative motion (in Einstein’s theory) at the same time?

Also, if the distance between emitted wavefronts expands to a certain magnitude relative to an observer on Earth (depending upon relative velocity), then they must also physically expand to a specific magnitude relative to every other observer in the Cosmos all at the same time, depending upon their relative velocity and relative direction of motion. This, of course, would be an impossibility for the same reasons as described in Chapter 10A. Einstein’s relativistic Doppler theory is yet another example of his philosophy: “that everything that is mathematically true [or possible] must have a physical counterpart.” (see Dingle, 1972, p. 125)

With the classical Doppler effect of
light, the spectral shift is __observed__ to be __directly proportional__
to the relative velocity (or ‘linear’ in mathematical terms). Whereas, with the relativistic Doppler
theory, the __observed__ spectral shift theoretically is not directly
proportional to the relative velocity, but rather takes a much different arcing
geometrical shape.[7] (see Figure 23.1) Is not the contradictory observed effect
empirical evidence that Einstein’s relativistic equations are not correct?

This arcing shape results from the application of the Lorentz
transformation, and its purpose is a mathematical one: to keep the relative velocity of the two
luminous objects always below the speed of light. But this result in turn contradicts current estimates
of the radial velocity of remote galaxies; their interpreted radial velocities
relative to Earth are far in excess of the speed of light. (see __________________) Something is amiss. It turns out that such contradictory result
was not even necessary for redshifts.
Why? Because Einstein’s
relativistic speed limit of *c* for the addition of two velocities in the __same__
direction does not theoretically impose a speed limit on two luminous bodies
separating in space in __different__ directions.

Does Einstein’s relativistic Doppler principle assert that information can be transmitted faster than the speed of light, and even instantaneously? The answer is ‘yes.’

Einstein’s relativistic Doppler
principle only requires a __relative velocity__ v between two inertial
bodies (a distant light source and a local observer), light waves of frequency
f at the source, and the Lorentz transformation equations. Thus, the relativistic Doppler effect
perceived by the observer (the shift of the dark spectral lines) is *a priori* due to the combination of the
motion of the observer __and__ the motion of the distant light source at the
same time. In other words, the observed
effect theoretically results because of their simultaneous relative velocity;
but never because of their unique velocities considered separately, nor because
of the distance/time interval delay of *c*.

Resnick asserted that “the theory of
relativity introduces an __intrinsic__ simplification over the classical
interpretation of” the Doppler effect…in that the two separate cases which are
different in classical theory, namely an observer moving relative to a source
and a source moving relative to an observer “are __identical__ in
relativity.” (Resnick, 1968, p. 91) This claim of identity has also been made by
many other relativists. For example,
“the relativistic result is a kind of __unification__ of the moving-source
and moving-observer results…”[8] (French, p. 137) It follows from the above that (in Einstein’s
theory) the relative velocity of the source and the observer produces one and
the same effect (either a blue shift or a red shift), and that either the
“observation of the movement [motion] is __immediate__ in both cases, or it
is delayed in both cases.” (Dingle,
1972, p. 216)

We know from experience that observation of such confirmed motion in Einstein’s theory must be immediate. Why? Because:

“We know that, with
respect to a distant star, the orbital motion of the Earth round the Sun causes
an alternation of approach and recession.
The Doppler effect corresponding to this is observed to synchronise with
the orbital motion in every case, so we know that, when the observer moves, the
effect is seen immediately…That means that the effect must also be seen __immediately__
when the star moves, otherwise there would be an observable distinction between
the two cases.” (Dingle, 1972, p. 216)

Therefore, according to Einstein’s theory, “every Doppler effect observed
is a result of a motion occurring at the time (instant) of observation, no
matter how far away the source of light may be.” (*Id*., p. 217)

Let us analyze the implications of these assertions and empirical conclusions. If the relativistic Doppler effect is only due to the combination of the separate velocities of two relatively moving bodies, then the velocity of the light source, no matter how far away, must have an immediate, instantaneous and simultaneous impact on the locally observed effect. This result violates Einstein’s relativistic addition of velocities: that no transmission of information (vis. the velocity of a distant star) can exceed the speed of light.

We have devised a simple and straightforward test to determine the
validity or invalidity of this simultaneous transmission. If the observed spectrum shifts between the
solar orbiting Earth and two nearby binary stars in reciprocal orbits are
consistent and correlate with current observations, then such observed shifts
must be a __time delayed__ classical Doppler spectrum shift that we are
observing. (see Figure 23.1B) Why?
Because our current observations of such binary stars also portray the
relative motions of the binary stars that occurred many light-years in the
past, due to the distance/time interval delay of *c*. On the other hand, if there is no such
correlation then such observed shift must be a simultaneous relativistic
Doppler spectrum shift due to current distant relative motions of the binary
stars which we currently observe because of the distance/time interval delay of
*c*. Our money rides on the time
delayed classical Doppler shift.

The relativistic Doppler concept implies that, without an aether, the separate analysis of the source’s motion and the observer’s motion are always meaningless, because there is no way to determine which body in space is moving. However, observations in local space belie this assertion. For example, the alternations of blue shifts and red shifts observed in light from a distant star is directly correlated with the Earth’s observed solar orbital motion, and can only be rationalized on the basis of such local observation. (see Dingle, 1972, p. 216; Figure 23.2A) Likewise, the similar spectral oscillations of one observed binary star orbiting another star can only be explained based on such distant time delayed observations. [9] (see Zeilik, p. 315; Figure 23.2B)

The relativistic Doppler concept also implies that the finite transmission velocity of light and the resulting distance/time interval delay of c are irrelevant to the effect. How then does it explain the facts that: 1) the Earth does not change its motion relative to a distant exploding star (a supernova), and 2) we do not perceive a large blue shift associated with the supernova’s fragments approaching the Earth at about 2,000 km/s until we observe the supernova itself (which occurred thousands of light years ago). This time delay for the local observation of such blue shift also contradicts the assertion of the relativistic Doppler effect that the relative motion of the distant light source is part and parcel of every Doppler effect; in other words, that the relative velocity of the light source is observed simultaneously with every Doppler effect.

Einstein and his followers imply
that the relativistic Doppler effect is a necessary consequence of Special
Relativity. Professor Dingle, in his
extensive treatise on the Doppler Effect, concluded just the opposite: “__there is no necessary relation at all
between the relativity theory and the Doppler effect__.” (Dingle, 1961, p. 21) Why?
Because:

“[Einstein’s]
postulate of constant light velocity speaks only of the * velocity*
of light; it does not require that light shall even show a periodity [a
frequency of light waves].” [10] (

“Einstein’s
theory of necessity makes a complete divorce between the velocity of light and
its frequency, because the velocity is independent of the motion of the source
or receiver and the frequency [Doppler effect] varies systematically with the
relative motion of those bodies.” (*Id.*,
p. 119)

Thus “it would
be entirely consistent with Einstein’s theory if there were no Doppler effect
at all—i.e. if motion had no effect on the observed frequency of light...” (*Id.*, p. 22)

In his 1907 Jahrbuch article, Einstein implied that an experiment conducted by J. Stark in 1906 confirmed his relativistic Doppler concept. In Stark’s experiment, radiation emitted from rapidly moving hydrogen ions (called canal rays) created spectral lines that shifted position during the experiment. Stark interpreted this shift of position to be a Doppler effect. Einstein, in turn, considered the atomic oscillation process and the frequency of the spectral lines emitted by the ions to be a clock with a certain ‘proper’ frequency. (Einstein, 1907 Jahrbuch [Beck, pp. 262 – 263, 266 – 267]) When Einstein applied the Lorentz transformations to this ‘proper’ frequency he concluded:

“the effect of
the motion on the light frequency that is to be ascertained by the observer is
not completely given by the Doppler effect.
The motion also reduces the (apparent) proper frequency of the emitting
ions in accordance with the [Lorentz transformations].” (*Id*., p. 263)

Einstein’s mathematical conclusion is, of course, dependent upon his dubious assumptions that the Lorentz transformations are valid and that they should be applied to Stark’s experiment. This so-called confirmation is at best circular; Einstein’s relativistic Doppler effect was intended to empirically confirm his relativistic concept of Time Dilation which was mathematically created by his Lorentz transformations which caused the relativistic Doppler effect, etc., etc. Again, circular reasoning is not very convincing!

In fact, there is no experimental or
observational proof that the relatively small Doppler velocities observed in
local space are anything other than classical Doppler effects. Why?_{ }Because any such theoretical
variations between classical Doppler effects* *and_{ }a relativistic Doppler velocity* *are
too small to detect or “make themselves evident in practice.” (Einstein, *Relativity*, pp. 49, 50) How
convenient for Einstein’s relativistic Doppler effect!

T. P. Gill, who wrote the book entitled “The Doppler Effect” in 1965, concludes:

“the
actual amount of __evidence supporting the relativistic Doppler effect formula
is not very great__ at all. __It is
accepted because the remainder of the [relativistic] theory has to be accepted__
on the basis of…experimental evidence.”
(Gill, p. ix)

In other words, the relativistic Doppler effect does not support or confirm Special Relativity theory, as Einstein and others have claimed. Rather, the acceptance of the rest of the Special Theory of Relativity supports the relativistic Doppler effect. This mutual and circular bootstrapping of ‘proofs’ and ‘acceptance’ (the acceptance of one dubious theory supports another dubious theory) is not very convincing.

The only so-called ‘confirmation’
that classical Doppler shifts change in the way that the Lorentz transformation
asserts they do, is Einstein’s Special Relativity theory itself. (Einstein, 1905d [Dover, 1952, pp. 55 –
56]) Thus, contrary to Einstein’s
assertion, his relativistic Doppler formula is __not__ “found to be in
accord with experience.”[11]
(Einstein, *Relativity*, p. 55) Logically, the unobserved relativistic
Doppler effect cannot be confirmation or proof of the theory which created
it…Special Relativity.

** C.
**
**The Relativistic Transverse Doppler Effect**

Einstein’s and his followers also
claimed that his relativistic Doppler formula “predicts a *transverse Doppler
effect*, an effect that is *purely relativistic*, for there is no
transverse Doppler effect in classical physics at all.” [12]
(Resnick, 1968, p. 90) There is no
observed transverse Doppler effect of light for the same reasons that there is
no acoustical Doppler effect. The
frequency of receipt of the sound waves and the light wavefronts remains
constant for the observer who is located __perpendicular__ to the
motion. Empirically, if the relative
motion of the sound source or the light source is transverse to the position of
the observer (they are relatively at rest), then no spectral shift is perceived
by either the listener or the observer.

However, according to the
relativists, the only thing necessary to change the frequency of light
wavefronts from the source as viewed by the observer is __relative motion__. Therefore, according to the relativists,
transverse relative motion should also produce an __immediate__ frequency
change as received by the observer. “If
our line of sight is 90° to the relative motion, then we should observe a
frequency v which is *lower* than the proper frequency v' of the source
which is sweeping by us.”[13] (Resnick, 1968, p. 90) In other words, theoretically we should
observe a red shift.[14]

Resnick goes on to assert that the: “transverse Doppler effect has a simple time-dilation interpretation.” (Resnick, 1968, p. 90)

“The moving source is
really a moving clock beating out electromagnetic oscillations. We have seen that moving clocks appear to run
slow. Hence we see a given number of
oscillations in a time that is longer than the proper time…Therefore, we
observe a lower frequency than the proper frequency. The transverse Doppler effect is another
physical example __confirming__ the relativistic time dilation.” (*Id*., pp. 90 – 91)

Let us scrutinize these
claims by Resnick. Einstein attempted to
convince us that his concept of the Relativity of Simultaneity (time dilation)
had merit, but he failed. (Chapter 18) So we have __not__ seen that moving clocks
appear to run slow. This invalid time
dilation concept is then used by Resnick to rationalize the existence of a
transverse Doppler effect, which in turn is claimed to confirm the concept of
time dilation. Does this circular reasoning
convince any readers?

Many other relativists echo
Resnick’s conclusions.[15] (i.e., Bergmann, pp. 133 – 134; Born, pp. 301
– 302; Bohm, pp. 71 – 80) French asserts
that the linear relativistic Doppler effect is of the first order, v/*c*. Whereas, the relativistic transverse Doppler
effect is of the second order, a much smaller effect. (French, p. 144)

“If one is to establish
the existence of this transverse, or second-order, Doppler effect…one must be
sure that the angle θ is precisely π/2 [90°]. A deviation…would cause the first-order
Doppler factor…to swamp the effect being sought.” (*Id*.

The 1938 canal ray
experiment of Ives and Stillwell (and repetitions thereof) have been
interpreted by the relativists to be the major confirmations of Einstein’s
relativistic Doppler formula as well as the existence of his transverse Doppler
effect. (see French, pp. 144 – 146) In this experiment, radiation (canal rays)
emitted from high-speed hydrogen atoms (as compared to hydrogen atoms at rest)
resulted in displacements of their spectral lines which were interpreted by
Ives as Doppler shifts. Significantly,
such rays were not viewed from a 90° angle, but rather from an approximate 6°
angle. (Zhang, p. 184) The magnitudes of the resulting shifts were
similar to Ives’ predictions based on Lorentz’s __ether__ contraction
theory. Nevertheless, such results were
later also interpreted by relativists “as the first testing high accuracy of
[Einstein’s] second order Doppler effect, produced due to time dilation.”[16]
(Zhang, pp. 183 – 187) Is it persuasive
that the rays were observed from an angle of 6° rather than the required
90°? Is it persuasive that the same
experimental result is claimed as a confirmation for both Lorentz’s discredited
ether contraction theory and Einstein’s time dilation theory? Ives and Stillwell did not consider their
experiment as a confirmation of Special Relativity. (French, p. 146; Gill, p. 137)

Therefore, Einstein’s prediction of a “transverse Doppler effect” is nothing but his unsubstantiated conjecture. It is certainly not experimental confirmation that Special Relativity or time dilation is valid.[17] The fact that there is no empirical spectroscopic equivalent of a relativistic transverse Doppler effect is powerful experimental evidence that empirically it does not exist.

Closely related to Einstein’s relativistic Doppler concepts is another attempted confirmation of his Special Theory and its time dilation concept.

“…the theory of
relativity enables us __to predict the effects produced on the light__ __reaching
us from the fixed stars__ [18]…and
the effects indicated, which are __due to the__ __relative motion of the
earth with reference to those fixed stars__, are found to be in accord with
experience.” (Einstein, *Relativity*, p. 55)

Here Einstein
was not only talking about the Doppler effect of light, but an effect called
the ‘aberration of starlight’ as well. [19] (*Id*.

**D.
**
**Aberration**

With
regard to aberration, Einstein conjectured that the classical angle of
aberration was just an approximation to the first-order of magnitude (see Figure 6.1), and that
the Lorentz transformation (with √1 – v^{2}/*c*^{2}
as the denominator) describes the angle of aberration __more precisely__ to
the second-order of magnitude. (Resnick,
1968, pp. 85-87; Einstein, 1905d [Dover, 1952, pp. 56 – 57])

This assertion, of course, assumes
that the *ad hoc* Lorentz transformation equations and the Special Theory
of Relativity are empirically correct, and that Einstein’s calculations are
more precise than the classical calculations.
However, there is no experimental or observational proof that either
calculation (classical or relativistic) is more precise than the other. As Einstein himself acknowledged, Special
Relativity and its Lorentz transformations, *a priori*,

“affects only
the laws for rapid motions, in which the velocities of matter v are __not__
very small as compared with the velocity of light. We have experiences of such rapid motions
only in the case of electrons and ions; for __other motions__ [vis. the
aberration angle and the resulting miniscule tilting motion of a telescope] __the
variations from the laws of classical mechanics are too small to make
themselves evident in practice__.”
(Einstein, *Relativity*, pp. 49,
50)

Therefore, “the relativistic theory
of aberration…leads to the same formula as the older theory [of Bradley in
1728] provided that the velocities involved are much smaller than that of
light…[T]here is __no observable change__ in any angular position in
relativity theory.” (E.B., 1972, Vol. 1, p. 36; Zhang, p. 153) “The resulting annual change in the star’s
apparent position in the sky is of exactly the same character, and for
practical purposes of the same amount, as is given by the classical explanation
discovered by Bradley.” (E. B., 1972,
Vol. 1, p. 36) “The essential difference
from the older theory [is] that only relative motions between observers is
involved.” (E.B., 1972, Vol. 1, p.
36) In other words, the mythical concept
of ether is eliminated, and along with it the 19^{th} century idea that
the ether must be stationary for aberration to occur. For these reasons, Einstein’s claim that his
Special Theory is confirmed by his theoretically slightly different
relativistic angle of aberration remains just his theoretical conjecture. The only experience which the relativistic
angle of aberration could in any way be ‘in accord with’ is Bradley’s 1728
experiment.

**E.
**
**The Clock Paradox**

In section 4 of his 1905 Special Theory, Einstein described a “peculiar consequence” of his Lorentz Transformation:

“From this
there ensues the following peculiar consequence. If at the points A and B of K there are
stationary clocks which, viewed in the stationary system, are synchronous; and
if the clock at A is moved with the velocity *v* along the line AB to B,
then on its arrival at B the two clocks no longer synchronize, but the clock
moved from A to B lags behind the other…”
(Einstein, 1905D [Dover, 1952, p. 49])

This has been called the Clock Paradox.[20]

If one assumes (as Einstein did)
that a relatively moving clock, “as a consequence of its motion…__goes more
slowly__ than when at rest” (Einstein, *Relativity*,
p. 42), then there is no paradox.
Mathematically, when the Lorentz transformation for the duration of time
is applied to clock A, then *a priori* an expansion of the time interval
between its ticks is what happens. (*Id*.

Nevertheless, Einstein’s
mathematical clock paradox and his concept that ‘moving clocks run slow’ have
been claimed by many relativists to be confirmations of his Special Theory and
‘time dilation.’ (see Zhang, pp. 175 –
180) In furtherance of these claims,
efforts have been made to separate two synchronized atomic clocks on Earth,
Clock A and Clock B, and to carry clock A on an airplane around the Earth and
return it to its twin Clock B, in order to see if its greater motion has caused
it to run slow. (Zhang, pp. 180 –
183) For example, it is claimed than an
atomic clock carried around the Earth in an airplane at 900 km/h (0.25 km/s)
will have lost time upon its return to Earth.
But since such clock is already orbiting the Sun at 30 km/s, and is
already orbiting the galactic core at 225 km/s (1,000 times faster than the
airplane) *a priori* it must have already slowed down at least 1,000 times
compared to its time at absolute rest.
Thus, at absolute rest the atomic clock should be running much faster,
but absolute rest does not exist. Does
any of this mean anything?

Clock A, which is flown around the Earth, may or may not remain synchronous with Clock B, which remains on Earth, for a myriad of reasons.[21] However, time dilation is not one of them. Furthermore, in Chapter 18A we demonstrated that Einstein’s concept of ‘time dilation’ is a myth.

Another claimed confirmation for Special Relativity involves the slower than normal decay rate of pions and muons moving from outer space toward the Earth’s surface at high velocity, and the claimed reason is ‘time dilation.’[22] (Resnick, 1968, p. 37; Resnick, 1992, pp. 467 – 468) By now, we know even before discussing this claim that it is invalid, because in Chapter 18A we demonstrated that Einstein’s theory of the Relativity of Duration (time dilation) is invalid on its face.

**F.
**
**Muons**

In 1936, a new subatomic particle was discovered in cosmic rays coming from outer space. It had a magnitude of mass between an electron and a proton, and so it was dubbed a ‘π meson’ (short for ‘middle’ in Greek). When atomic nuclei coming from outer space at high velocities collide with nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the Earth’s upper atmosphere they produce a vast debris of π mesons (now called ‘pions’). Pions are highly unstable and almost instantly decay into a different particle called a ‘muon,’ which behaves like a heavy electron. (Close, pp. 57, 69, 71)

“The majority of cosmic ray muons
decay during their rapid flight through the atmosphere, but the most energetic
of them survive long enough to penetrate deep underground.” (*Id*., p. 69) On the other hand, muons artificially
produced in the laboratory on Earth have a much shorter lifespan of 2.2
microseconds when they are ‘at rest,’ and then they decay into another particle
called a ‘positron.’ (*Id*.

This difference in the lifespan of a muon has been described as a paradox, which has been explained according to Special Relativity as a dilation of time for the much faster moving cosmic muons when viewed by the observer at rest on Earth. (Born, pp. 160 – 161; Close, p. 69) As rationalized by Born:

“thus the mesons [muons]
illustrate the clock paradox; each meson [muon] carries its own clock which
determines the proper time T_{0} of decay. But the lifetime T observed by a terrestrial
observer is much larger…the moving meson [muon] ‘sees’ the distances on earth
contracted and is able to pass through considerable distances depending upon
its velocity.” (Born, pp. 260 – 261)

Born’s fanciful explanation for why some muons paradoxically “have” much longer lives and make it to the surface of the Earth (and below) before decaying is not really helpful. It borders on science fiction. Particles do not carry clocks, they do not “see” contracted distances on Earth, and time for the Earth observers is not dilated.

Similarly, Resnick
states that pions created at rest in the laboratory have an __average__
lifetime of only 26.0 nanoseconds.
Whereas, in a certain high-energy particle accelerator experiment, pions
created at 0.913*c* were interpreted to live for 63.7 ns. He concludes:
“This effect, called *time dilation*, suggests that something about
the __relative motion__ between the pion and the laboratory has stretched
the measured time interval by a factor of about 2.5.” (Resnick, 1992, p. 467)

Resnick then asserts that the observer in the laboratory measures the distance traveled by the pion in the particle accelerator to be 17.4 meters.

“Now consider the
situation according to a different observer who is traveling along with the
pion at a speed of *u* = 0.913*c*.
This observer, to whom the pion appears to be at rest, measures its
lifetime to be 26.0 ns, characteristic of pions at rest. To this observer, the distance [traveled by]
the pion is…7.1 m. Thus two observers
who are in relative motion measure different values for the same length
interval.” (*Id*., p. 468)

This scenario attempts to demonstrate and confirm Einstein’s reciprocal concept of the Relativity of Length.

Resnick’s explanation for why rapidly moving pions live longer and travel farther also borders on science fiction. Observers do not travel along with pions, they do not assume the pion to be at rest, and they do not measure time and distance with clocks and meter rods. The conjecture that these ‘paradoxes’ are caused by such relative motion is not supported by any physical explanation of the processes involved.

The real reasons must
involve basic natural physical processes.
For example: “Particles, like people,
do not die [decay] all at the same age.”
(Rohrlich, p. 210) The half-life
for muons is 2 microseconds (2 millionths of one second). This means that one half of all muons only
exist this long. But the other half
exist for varying periods, including twice as long, 4 times as long, 8 times as
long, 16 times as long, etc., and thus they travel much farther than the
average. Unlike humans, where few people
live much longer than the average life expectancy of 75, “for particles the
range of ages is much longer and cannot be specified in quite the same
way.” (*Id*.

Other phenomena which may contribute to slowing down the decay rate of particles might include: the energy which is applied to particles in an accelerator, the kinetic energy of particles rapidly approaching the Earth, variations in temperature, the varying effects of gravity, variations in the density of the medium, the effects of acceleration and deceleration, the effects of magnetic fields, and the like. More than likely, relative velocity (at a distance) has absolutely nothing to do with decay rate. Regardless of the physical cause, it does not advance science to demand an immediate answer (no matter how far fetched) for every unexplained paradox, nor to interpret scientific metaphors literally.

**G.
**
**Other so-called Confirmations for Time Dilation**

There are other claimed experimental confirmations for time dilation. For example, Einstein’s moving light clock has been cited as a confirmation for Time Dilation. (see Appendix A) So have the Michelson & Morley experiments, the 1851 Fizeau experiment, and many other so-called confirmations for Special Relativity. But we neither have the time nor the desire to address and falsify each of them, one by one. Most are basically duplications of the claims which we have discussed in this chapter, or very similar thereto. At some point, we must simply refer to Einstein’s fundamental assertions of the Relativity of Duration (time dilation) and our fundamental demonstrations that all of such concepts lack any merit whatsoever.

It becomes obvious that the relativists have
attempted to overwhelm the skeptics and detractors of Special Relativity with
the sheer volume of their claims and interpretations of experiments. For example, they cite at least 12
repetitions of the Michelson and Morley experiments between 1902 and 1930, and
interpret each as an experimental confirmation of the Special Theory. (Schleif, sec. II) They cite two repetitions of the Fizeau
Experiment in addition to the Hoek experiment, and interpret each as a
confirmation. (*Id*.*Id*.*Id*.

[1] This concept was also asserted by Lorentz. (French, p. 146; also see Goldberg pp. ______)

[2] To Einstein, ‘Time Dilation’ also meant the application of the Lorentz transformation for duration, to time intervals from one inertial reference frame to another. (see Gill, p. viii)

[3] This assumption of an observer moving at a certain velocity is identical to the classical explanation. (see Chapter 7)

[4] After
such observation and analysis, Einstein’s relativistic Doppler equations merely
attempt to modify such empirical magnitudes in an *ad hoc* way.

[5] Is this not the same as asserting that the wavelengths of light physically expand or become longer?

[6] This theoretical effect has also been described as a dilation (slowing down) of time for the observer.

[7] The
relativistic red shift for radial velocity is not linear, but rather curves and
always remains under *c*. (see

[8] The
relativists also attempt to justify the relativistic effect because of its
“special __symmetry__ that the previous result lacks.” (French, p. 137)

[9] Other similar situations where the observed motion of a luminous body can be demonstrated to be the cause of its spectral shift include the observed rotation of solar sunspots, the observed rotation of a planet, and spectral shifts from comets moving toward and away from the Sun.

[10] Whereas, the empirical Doppler effect of light interprets the frequency of received light waves to infer the magnitude and direction of relative linear velocity between luminous celestial bodies.

[11] In fact, the only experience which the relativistic Doppler effect was in any way in accord with, was the empirical and classical Doppler effect of light.

[12] The
rationale for this prediction seems to be that only __relative motion__ is
necessary for the effect.

[13] The only rationale for this conclusion is the application of the Lorentz transformation to such frequency v.

[14] The fact that empirically no red shift is observed by telescopic spectrometers is direct experimental evidence that the transverse Doppler effect does not exist.

[15] Bergmann points out that: “this relativistic law differs from the classical law only by the denominator

[√ 1 – v^{2}/*c*^{2}].” (Bergmann, p. 133)

[16] Such interpretation is highly suspect, because (as French points out) based on the initial measurement (before interpretations of such measurement) there was no observed transverse Doppler shift. (see French, p. 146)

Regardless of dubious experiments and their interpretations, the simple facts of reality remain. We have demonstrated in Chapter 18 that Einstein’s concepts of the Relativity of Simultaneity (duration) and time dilation have no merit whatsoever.

[17] Given enough imagination, the Lorentz transformation can probably “predict” all sorts of other bizarre phenomena. Given enough time, so can horoscopes and the multitude of imaginative predictions by Nostradamus. But unconfirmed predictions and unobserved phenomena are not proof of the validity of Special Relativity nor of the Lorentz transformation.

[18] Of
course the stars are __not__ fixed, but rather they orbit the core of the
Milky Way Galaxy at about 100 – 300 km/s and also travel through cosmic space
along with the Milky Way Galaxy at an indeterminable velocity. In reality, many of the stars which we see
are actually distant and separate galaxies.
(Hubble, 1929) But most of these
facts were not known to Einstein in 1916 when he wrote *Relativity*.

[19] “We
refer to the yearly movement of the apparent position of the fixed stars
resulting from the motion of the earth around the sun (aberration)…” (Einstein,
*Relativity*, p. 55)

[20] This is also referred to as the ‘twin paradox,’ where twin A leaves Earth for years on a rapidly moving rocket and theoretically returns to Earth much younger than twin B.

[21] For example: different forces, gravitational pulls, centrifugal, tidal forces; different motions, a bumpy flight, seismic or other terrestrial disturbances; different velocities through space, accelerations and decelerations; different altitudes, pressures, temperatures; different construction or composition; etc., or a combination of the above.

[22] The Mössbauer effect, which asserts that gamma rays (high energy photons) in radioactive nuclei (clocks) decay at a slower rate the faster they are accelerated, is similar.