**PREAMBLE**

**(Revised)**

**Why Einstein was Mistaken About the
Velocity of Light. **

Einstein’s 1905 Special Theory of
Relativity is primarily about the velocity of a ray of light after it is
emitted from a material body (such as a light bulb) and when it then travels
through a vacuum __toward another moving body__. (see Figure A.2)

Forty years before Einstein wrote
his Special Theory, in 1865 to be precise, Scottish scientist James Clerk
Maxwell was able to deduce from light experiments that the velocity of a light
ray was about 300,000 kilometers per second when it transmitted through a
vacuum. Maxwell then theorized that a
ray of light transmits from its source (i.e. a light bulb) through __a vacuum__
at the __constant__ velocity of about 300,000 kilometers per second.[1] (see Figure A.1 at the
end of the Preamble) This constant
velocity of light is now referred to by the symbol ‘*c*.’

For several reasons, Einstein did
not understand Maxwell’s theory for the constant transmission velocity of a light
ray __with respect to a vacuum__. Instead
Einstein assumed that the velocity of a transmitting light ray must be described
and measured __with respect to a material body__ (such as a rocket), which body
might be moving toward or away from the light ray. (see Figure A.2)

In early 1917, Einstein wrote a
little-known treatise, entitled *The
Principle Ideas of the Theory of Relativity*.[2] Einstein’s treatise described: 1) his total misinterpretation of Maxwell’s
theory, and 2) the major __false
premise__ upon which his entire Special Theory of Relativity was based. In his 1917 treatise, Einstein described the
following thought experiment.

Imagine a ray of light sent by the sun in a certain direction. According to Maxwell’s theory, this light ray travels away from the sun at 300,000 kilometers per second. (see Figure B.1)

Now imagine that the sun hurls a body into space that moves with a velocity of 1,000 kilometers per second in the same direction as the ray of light. Einstein then asked: “what is the velocity of the light ray in the judgment of the observer who sits on the moving body?” The answer is simple, he said. “When the body moves after the light ray at 1,000 kilometers per second, the light ray travels away from the moving body at only 299,000 kilometers per second.”

At this point in his thought experiment Einstein was correct, because the
velocity of the light ray traveling at 300,000 km/s, minus the velocity of the
body moving at 1,000 km/s in the same direction, is 299,000 km/s. However, this velocity of 299,000 km/s is only
the very natural __relative velocity__ between the light ray transmitting at
300,000 km/s and the body moving at 1,000 km/s in the same direction.

Nevertheless, Einstein misassumed that his computations must be wrong,
because he incorrectly believed that the constant transmission velocity of the
light ray had somehow __changed__ from *c*
(300,000 km/s) to 299,000 km/s. This change
in transmission velocity (if it had actually occurred) would have violated
Maxwell’s Law for the __constant__ transmission velocity of light at *c*, which law had been verified in many
experiments. Einstein was bewildered by
this paradoxical result.

Einstein decided to defend Maxwell’s Law by mathematically manipulating the problem which he perceived, so that Maxwell’s Law could always mathematically remain 300,000 km/s relative to any uniformly moving body in the Universe, regardless of such body’s relative velocity with respect to the light ray. Einstein accomplished this artificial and physically impossible mathematical trick with a set of transformation equations (called the ‘Lorentz transformations’). These ‘magical’ equations automatically change any relative velocity of a light ray to exactly 300,000 km/s with respect to any uniformly moving body, regardless of such moving body’s velocity relative to the light ray. Physicist Lee Smolin referred to this mathematical trick performed by Einstein as “the trick that made relativity special.” (see Smolin, pp. 228, 229)

In spite of Einstein’s ingenious mathematical manipulations, it turns out
that they were totally unnecessary, because in reality there was no problem with
Maxwell’s Law that needed fixing. What
Einstein failed to realize was that he was actually dealing with __two different
types of velocity__ for the same light ray.
The first velocity was Maxwell’s constant transmission velocity of the
light ray at 300,000 km/s through a vacuum.
The other velocity (299,000 km/s) was merely a __relative velocity__
of the light ray which very naturally changes with respect to every differently
moving body. To confuse Einstein even
further, both of these different velocities of the light ray were occurring at
the same time.

With this explanation as our background, let us now return to Einstein’s 1917 thought experiment. Einstein then asked another question:

“Should the velocity of the light ray when it travels away from the moving body really be different than when it travels away from the sun?” (see Figure B.2)

Einstein’s incorrect answer was:

The velocity of
the light ray is the same in both cases.
__The same ray of light travels at 300,000 kilometers per second relative
to the sun and also relative to the body moving at 1,000 kilometers per second__.

This answer by Einstein was, of course, physically impossible and completely
wrong. Einstein should have answered: “yes, the two velocities must be different, because
the velocity of the light ray with respect to the moving body is merely a __relative
velocity__ of 299,000 km/s (300,000 km/s minus 1,000 km/s).

The reason for Einstein’s mistake was: that he described and measured the velocity of
the light ray with respect to the sun and the moving body, instead of __with
respect to the vacuum__ (like Maxwell did).
This mistake was also Einstein’s fundamental __false premise__ for
his entire Special Theory of Relativity.
Only if the velocity of the light ray is described and measured __with
respect to the vacuum__ (as Maxwell did) can the transmission velocity of the
light ray always remain a constant 300,000 kilometers per second through a
vacuum. This is the very simple correct
answer to Einstein’s bewildering paradox.

Because Einstein never realized this very simple correct answer, he then
attempted to justify his wrong answer (that the velocity of the light ray was
the same in both cases). He conjectured
that: “If this appears to be __impossible__,
the reason is that __one second of time as measured from the sun is not equal
to one second of time as measured from the moving body__.”

Einstein’s absurd conjecture that two seconds of time measured from two
differently moving bodies have __unequal durations of time__ was, again, physically
impossible. But he had to think of
something in order to attempt to defend Maxwell’s Law.

Thereafter, Einstein contrived his entire Special Theory of Relativity in a fruitless attempt to mathematically justify his monumental false premise, his ridiculous conjecture concerning the unequal durations of the same periods of time, and the bizarre concepts which he mathematically concocted for his Special Theory. Let us now briefly describe what Einstein did in his Special Theory.

In order that his artificially constant velocity of any light ray at *c* (with respect to any moving body in
the Universe) could remain mathematically consistent with all of the other
concepts of physics, Einstein was forced to mathematically __distort__

Sure enough, when Einstein applied the Lorentz transformations to the other perfectly valid laws of physics, they became distorted into invalid laws. This was no problem for Einstein. He then attempted to mathematically demonstrate that the invalid laws of physics which he had just created were now really valid laws. By the end of his Special Theory, Einstein had mathematically turned most of physics on its head.

Einstein then tried to find other theories and experiments that might __appear__
to confirm his distorted concepts and his unnecessary and invalid Special
Theory. But they also were either incorrect,
or wrongly interpreted, or merely coincidences, or approximations, or
hypotheses, or speculations, or just mathematical equations, etc.

In the end, there are no empirical confirmations for any of Einstein’s distorted concepts nor for his Special Theory. The reason is because Special Relativity is just an elaborately contrived and meaningless mathematical theory which attempts to justify its own false premise.

**The Three
Velocities of Light in a Vacuum**

In his popular book, *Relativity*,
at pp. 22 – 23, Albert Einstein described another thought experiment within the
theoretical environment of a vacuum. He
emitted a light ray at velocity *c*
from a stationary light source on the Earth and aimed it toward a stationary
railway embankment and toward a railway carriage that was moving uniformly at
velocity v down the railway track and away from the light ray. (see Figure C.1) Einstein’s mathematical result of this
thought experiment was: the velocity of
the light ray remained at velocity *c*
relative to the stationary embankment, but relative to the carriage A moving
away at velocity v the light ray algebraically changed to *c* – v.

Einstein mistakenly interpreted this
algebraic change of the light ray from velocity *c* to *c* – v to mean that
Maxwell’s law for the __constant__ transmission velocity of light at *c* in a vacuum was no longer a constant
velocity of *c* with respect to the
moving carriage. Instead, Einstein
claimed that the velocity of the light ray was now “smaller than *c*.”
Einstein then conjectured and concluded as follows:

“like every
other __general law of nature__ the law of the __transmission__ of light
in a vacuum must be __the same__ for the railway carriage __as
reference-body__ as when the embankment is the __body of reference__. But, from our above consideration, this would
appear to be impossible. If every ray of
light is propagated toward the embankment with the velocity *c*, then for this reason it would appear
that __another law of propagation of light__ must necessarily hold with
respect to the carriage.”

What could be the answer to this
paradox? The short answer is that
Einstein’s paradox was based upon yet another similar __false premise__. If one measures the velocity of a light ray
at 300,000 km/s relative to a stationary body and relative to a linearly moving
body, the result will very naturally be __two different relative velocities__.

What Einstein again failed to understand in his second thought experiment
was that there were really __two different types of velocities__ for the
light ray that he was describing and measuring.
The first type of velocity was the __constant__ transmission velocity
of the light ray at *c* (300,000 km/s) with
respect to its medium of a vacuum (or with respect to the stationary
embankment). The second type of velocity
was the __relative velocity__ of the same light ray propagating (or
traveling) at *c* – v with respect to
the carriage moving at v away from the light ray. It is just that simple.

For example, if v = 10 kilometers per second, then *c* (300,000 km/s) __minus__ 10 km/s = 299,990 km/s. This last figure is the very natural __relative
velocity__ of the light ray traveling at 300,000 km/s with respect to the
carriage moving at 10 km/s in the __same__ direction. (see Figure C.1)

On the other hand, if the light ray and the carriage were traveling in __opposite__
directions, then the velocity of the light ray at *c* (300,000 km/s) __plus__ the velocity v of the carriage (10
km/s) would very naturally result in a different __relative velocity__ of
300,010 km/s. (see Figure C.2)

These relative velocities of a light ray are very similar to your auto
moving constantly down a motorway at 30 meters per second (v_{1})
relative to an auto in front of you moving constantly in the same direction at
10 meters per second (v_{2}).
(see Figure D) The difference between the velocities of the
two autos (v_{1} – v_{2}) is a constant __relative velocity__
of 20 meters per second (v_{3}).
This constant relative velocity results in __changing__ distances, changing
time intervals and changing positions of the two autos. However, the two autos are, respectively, still
constantly moving at 30 meters per second (v_{1}) and at 10 meters per
second (v_{2}) relative to the stationary motorway and relative to the
stationary air. The stationary motorway
and the stationary air play the part of the vacuum in Einstein’s analogies.

All of the above discussion and examples completely explains Einstein’s paradox and his false premise. In effect, Einstein was confused by his own mathematics: algebra.

For all of these reasons there never was a problem with Maxwell’s theory
for the constant velocity of light at *c*
in a vacuum that needed fixing by Einstein’s mathematics or by his Special
Theory of Relativity.

Nevertheless, because Einstein never recognized his mistakes or his false premises, he invented a completely new, artificial and impossible velocity for the light ray in a vacuum; all in a desperate, unnecessary and ridiculous attempt to defend Maxwell’s Law, which did not need defending.

In effect, what Einstein did was to mathematically change Maxwell’s Law
so that every light ray in the Universe had __absolutely__ the same constant
relative velocity of *c* (300,000 km/s)
with respect to every uniformly moving body in the Universe at every instant in
time; regardless of the actual different relative velocities of such bodies and
regardless of whether or not they were traveling toward or away from such light
rays. (see Figure E) This absurd mathematical result was, of
course, another physical impossibility.

Einstein again used his ingenious mathematical manipulations to
accomplish this impossible physical result.
The handy Lorentz transformation equations were again his magical method
of choice. When applied, they cause the
“measurements of time and distance” between two uniformly moving bodies to “__vary__
from each other in such a way that one speed, that of light [at 300,000 km/s],
is universal.” This was yet another
mathematical “trick that made relativity special.” (see Smolin, pp. 228, 229)

Einstein called his mathematical trick, ‘covariance.’ Covariance became the central focus of every physical concept which Einstein imagined or invented in both his Special Theory and his General Theory of Relativity. It always performed amazing mathematical tricks for Einstein in his world of pseudo-scientific fantasies, but such magical tricks were nothing more than mathematical illusions. They had no physical meaning for the real world in which we live.

The three velocities of light in a vacuum referred to above are now described as follows:

1. Maxwell’s __constant velocity__ of a light
ray at *c* transmitting through the
medium of a vacuum. This concept is a
law of nature.

2. The constant transmission velocity of a light
ray at *c* in a vacuum, which is also traveling
relative to many bodies moving at different velocities. This concept describes the __relative
velocities__ of any light ray.

3. Einstein’s physically __impossible__ constant
velocity of a light ray at *c* relative
to all uniformly moving bodies in the Universe at the same instant, regardless
of such bodies’ different velocities relative to such light ray. This clever result of mathematical manipulation
was Einstein’s artificial and meaningless so-called solution for the paradoxes
which he created.

The real paradoxes appear to be fourfold:

1. How could anyone have believed that Einstein’s false premises were valid?

2. How could anyone have believed that Einstein’s artificial and mathematically manipulated velocity for a light ray was correct?

3. How could anyone have believed that Einstein’s contrived concepts, distorted by the Lorentz transformations, were correct?

4. How could anyone have believed that Einstein’s entire Special Theory of Relativity, which was filled with artificial mathematical manipulations, had any real physical meaning?

[1] See
Maxwell, 1865, *A Dynamical Theory of the
Electromagnetic Field* [The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell (1890),
Vol. 1, pp. 579 – 580,

[2] See
Einstein, early 1917, *The Principle Ideas
of the Theory of Relativity* [Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vol. 7,
pp. 3 – 6, Princeton University Press].